What is ADHD?
ADHD is a disorder that causes children to have trouble controlling their behavior. This disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children. The prevalence of this disease in boys is 3 times higher than in girls. The prevalence of this disease is 7.2% among children under 18 years old and 3.4% among adults.
Children with ADHD disorder have difficulty controlling their behavior. They may be too noisy and lively in places where they should be quiet. And also have problems communicating with other peers. Because of this, they will have many performance problems at home and school. They may fail academically and also put themselves in very dangerous situations. Because they do not have a proper understanding of the danger. Next, to know what ADHD is? And what are the types of ADHD? Stay with us.
Types of ADHD
There are three types of ADHD
- They only have attention disorder: this category has a problem of lack of attention and concentration. They are calm and not overly active and mischievous, so the problem of these people may be ignored. This type is more common among girls.
- Hyperactivity and impulsive movements: this category does not lack concentration and their number is very small compared to other types.
- Combined (attention deficit, hyperactivity, and impulsive movements): This category is the most common and has all the symptoms together.
ADHD symptoms in adults and children
Inability to concentrate, excessive movement and vivacity, impulsive behaviors.
Or it may be a combination of the above symptoms.
In the following, we mention the characteristics of these children in the form of examples from the above categories:
Inability to concentrate:
Carelessness and lack of attention to detail in school and other daily tasks.
They have problems in tasks that require attention, such as: listening to lectures, listening to lessons, or even in normal conversations.
Even when someone directly talks to these people, they don’t listen or ignore him.
Lack of interest in tasks that require constant mental effort, such as doing school work, homework, etc. (for adults, tasks such as preparing reports, filling out forms, etc.).
Constantly leaving essential items such as mobile phones, wallets, glasses, keys, etc.
They easily lose their concentration.
Having difficulty organizing activities such as the sequence of tasks, time management, etc.
Inability to follow instructions and rules
Excessive mobility and vitality:
They shake while sitting.
Getting up and walking in situations that should be quiet such as class, waiting room, office, etc.
Running and jumping up and down in places that are not allowed. In teenagers and adults, it is often accompanied by a feeling of restlessness and a desire to go.
They cannot play quietly.
Talking too much.
He keeps interrupting others.
Running in the middle of the street regardless of the risk of an accident.
He is restless and cannot wait for anything.
Answers before a question is finished.
He speaks and acts without thinking.
What is the cause of ADHD?
Scientists have not yet identified a specific reason why ADHD occurs. But what we know is that the main cause of this disease, like many diseases, is genetic factors. In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors are also effective.
Effective factors in the emergence of ADHD in children:
Smoking, alcohol, and drugs during pregnancy
Exposure to environmental toxins such as lead
Premature birth and low birth weight
Diagnosis and testing of attention deficit disorder
Children may naturally get tired in different situations, or they may not pay attention to anything. They may have any of the symptoms of ADHD under the influence of stress and anxiety, but they do not have this disorder. The minimum time required to diagnose this disorder is 6 months. That is, the child must have symptoms of this disorder for at least 6 months so that the psychiatrist can make a definite diagnosis of ADHD.
Diagnosing ADHD in children under 6 years old is very difficult because they are constantly changing during growth and development.
The following are required to diagnose ADHD
- The child has these symptoms in more than one situation, such as at home, school, etc.
(getting information from all those who are in contact with the child, such as teachers, nurses, coaches, etc ).
- These symptoms can be seen in a wide range of child behaviors such as daily tasks, school activities, relationships with siblings and friends, and group work.
- The onset of symptoms before 7 years of age
- Having symptoms for more than 6 months
What is the treatment of ADHD in children and adults?
There is no definitive treatment for ADHD and attention deficit disorder. But it can be helped to a great extent to reduce the symptoms and improve them. Remember that timely diagnosis and treatment are very effective in achieving better results.
The most effective and fastest way to treat this disease is drug therapy. But in most cases, using combined treatment methods including drugs and behavioral therapy is more effective. The goal of ADHD treatment is important. If you want to reduce symptoms only at school your child can only take medication during school time. Also, in order to achieve the best results, it is important to have continuous check-up sessions by physicians to check the effect of the drug and its side effects.
The best time to diagnose and treat ADHD is under 12 years old. Because due to the lack of timely and correct treatment, this disease may continue in adulthood.