Cataract is the darkening of the lens of the eyes. The lens of the eye is located in the middle of the eyeball and focuses light on the retina. Clouding of the lens causes blurring of the eyes or lack of clarity of vision. This defect is more problematic during reading and driving as well as other daily tasks. The most common type of cataract is age – related and occurs mostly in people over 65 years old. The lens of the eye is a part of the eye structure that is very clear and without any veins. They have an approximate diameter of 9 mm and a thickness of 4 mm.
The retina is a light – sensitive layer in the eye that receives visual messages. In a healthy and normal eye, light passes through the lens and is focused on the retina, which must be clear and free from cloudiness to create an accurate image. When the lens loses its transparency, it causes visual impairment. In the early stages, when only a small part of the lens becomes cloudy, it does not cause a problem. But in most cases, a larger part of the lens is involved and causes vision impairment. The rate of cataract progression can vary from person to person and can progress over several years. But the speed of cataract development is very high in young people or people with diabetes. The important thing is that cataracts do not spread from one eye to another.
Types of cataracts
There are different types of cataracts:
The first type can be due to aging. Over time, the lens hardens and loses its transparency.
The second type of cataract can be caused by diseases such as diabetes or due to the use of corticosteroids. These patients need to treat with retinal laser.
The third type of cataract can be mentioned as a result of an impact on the eye, which is called traumatic cataract. And in most cases, it occurs in a person with the passage of time and after years.
The fourth type of cataract is congenital cataract. In this type of cataracts of children and cataracts of infants, they develop cataracts or infantile cataracts from the time of birth or at the same age as children. In most cases, in this type of eye cataract, vision is not disturbed. But if a disturbance occurs, the child’s eye must undergo surgery.
Other factors that can accelerate or aggravate this disease
Exposure to sunlight for a long time without protective glasses
History of surgery and other inflammatory eye diseases
symptoms of cataract
The following are the most common and important symptoms of cataracts:
Blurring and in most cases fading vision.
Extreme sensitivity to light and lighting, including the excessive brightness of car lights at night, the spread of sunlight and light from lights, and also seeing the halo around the lights.
Low vision or partial blindness at night.
Diplopia or multiple vision, which in most cases worsens with the increase in the severity of cataracts.
Increasing near vision, constantly increasing the score of glasses and lenses.
The symptoms mentioned above can also be caused by other eye diseases. So if you have one of the above, be sure to see an eye doctor. The best time for cataract surgery depends on the diagnosis of your doctor.
It is a simple and painless examination. Your doctor will check for vision problems that cause blurred vision, such as near – sightedness or far – sightedness. Then the doctor will give you eye drops to dilate your pupils and check for eye diseases. Since many eye diseases have no signs or symptoms, you may have a problem and not know it. Even if you think your eyes are healthy, having an open eye exam is the only sure way to confirm your eye health
What is cataract treatment?
Surgery is the only way to get rid of cataracts, but you may not need surgery right away.
If cataracts interfere with daily activities such as reading, driving, or watching television, your doctor may recommend surgery. During cataract surgery, the doctor removes the clouded lens and replaces it with a new artificial lens (also called an intraocular lens or IOL). This surgery is very safe and 9 out of 10 people who undergo surgery see better after surgery.
How to prevent cataracts?
You can take steps to protect your eyes and delay cataracts, such as;
Use sunglasses and a brimmed hat to avoid the sun
Eat healthily – eat lots of fruits and vegetables – especially dark, leafy greens like spinach, kale, and collard greens.
Do eye exercises daily so that the muscles that are responsible for adjusting the lenses remain strong. Use of estrogen after menopause (more than 10 years) may reduce the risk of developing nuclear cataracts.