What is Favism?
It is a genetic disease. The disease occurs when the function of one of the red blood cell enzymes called glucose – phosphate dehydrogenase or G6PD briefly. This enzyme is responsible for maintaining the health of red blood cells. It is due to this protein that red blood cells can function properly and have normal life. This enzyme is a type of protein that regulates biochemical reactions in the body.
When the level of this enzyme decreases in the body, the red blood cells are destroyed and hemolysis sooner than the real time . Now the question is, why should premature destruction of red blood cells be a concern? You should know that these blood cells are responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients and carbon dioxide. With their destruction, the body faces a lack of oxygen. And as a result, the patient’s life will be threatened.
What is the cause of favism?
Fauvism is a hereditary and blood disease. That is passed from parent to child. Meanwhile, boys are more prone to this disease than girls. This is due to a defective gene that leads to glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. This gene is located on the x chromosome. To get this disease, the presence of only one altered copy of the gene is enough. Because boys have only one chromosome, they are more threatened by favism.
On the other hand, girls have two x chromosomes. Therefore, if only one of them is involved in the disease, it will not cause favism. But they are carriers of the disease and can transmit the disease to their children.
Types of favism
The World Health Organization has classified different types of G6PD according to the degree of enzyme deficiency and severity of hemolysis into the following five main categories:
I: People who suffer from severe enzyme deficiency and also suffer from chronic hemolytic anemia.
II: Patients with severe enzyme deficiency and red blood cells are destroyed intermittently (periodic hemolysis).
III: Enzyme deficiency is moderate and hemolysis is caused only by stressful factors.
IV: mild side effects and no enzyme deficiency
V: Enzyme increase without side effects.
Signs and symptoms
People who suffer from glucose -6- phosphate – dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency do not have any problems in their normal state and can lead a normal life and activity like other people. When these people are exposed to irritants, they suffer from hemolytic anemia. This anemia can endanger their lives. The symptoms of this disease include the following:
How is favism in children?
Fauvism in children shows itself in the form of anemia. This disease can occur at any age, but its occurrence is common between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Those mothers who have babies with favism should pay attention to their diet. Disease – causing substances can transmit to the child through breast milk.
If you see the symptoms of favism in your child, try to give the child drinks suger free and color free . This increases urination and can be effective in improving the child’s condition. But you need to see a specialist.
What are the methods of diagnosing ?
To diagnose the disease, the doctor will first pay attention to your medical history. It may talk about medications or infections. One of the important questions is whether anyone in your family has this disease or not. Next, he asks for a blood test for the final diagnosis and rejection of other possibilities.
What are the methods of preventing favism disease?
It is a genetic disease, so there is no way to prevent it. If one of the family members is suffering from this disease, it is necessary to consult a specialist doctor for testing and screening. Blood and oncology specialists can help you in this field.
How should the nutrition of favism patients be? People suffering from favism should refrain from consuming the following substances:
Legumes such as fava beans and peas.
Blue food coloring.
Medicines such as anti – malarial medicine, aspirin and antibiotics.
This disease has no cure, so it will always be with the patient. However, with increasing age, its intensity decreases. But this statement does not mean that people are indifferent to stimuli such as beans. Stimulants at any age can cause exacerbation and emergence of disease symptoms.
Fauvism is not an acute disease. But people who have a disease or are at risk of developing a disease should be aware of their disease. Being aware of the disease is the best way to control it.
Fauvism and marriage
People with this disease do not have problems in marriage. It is better to consult an expert in this field to check the situation. This is more important for people with thalassemia minor or major.