Decreased bone density and loss of bone tissue, which lead to weak and brittle bones, are hallmarks of osteoporosis. If you have this problem, you are more at risk of breaking bones, especially in the hips, spine, and wrists. Osteoporosis is often as a condition that weakens the ability to build new bones in older women and men. Of course, osteoporosis factors start much earlier than such ages. Since bone density peaks at around 25 years of age, it is important to strengthen bones before this age. So that they remain strong and strong in the later periods of life. Adequate calcium intake is one of the main factors in achieving strong bones.
Signs and symptoms of osteoporosis
Osteoporosis usually has no symptoms in the early stages. But later it causes a dull ache in the bones or muscles, especially in the neck and lower back. In the later stages of the disease, severe and sudden pain is one of the symptoms of osteoporosis. It usually does not spread to other areas; But it gets worse with activities that put pressure on the painful area. And pain may be accompanied by tenderness to touch, but generally subsides within a week. Pain usually lasts for more than three months.
Sufferers may not even remember a fall or any trauma that broke a bone, such as their spine or ankle. Compression fractures in the spine lead to shortening and humpback.
Usually, falls are the cause of fractures elsewhere in the body, most commonly occurring in the hip and wrist bones.
Causes of Osteoporosis
This disease occurs when , there is not the balance between new bone formation and old bone resorption. In this condition, either the body cannot produce enough new bone, or it reabsorbs too much of the old bone, or both. Calcium and phosphate are two essential minerals for the formation of normal bones. Calcium is an essential element for the proper functioning of the heart, brain and other organs. In order for these organs to continue working, the body reabsorbs the calcium stored in the bones to maintain blood calcium levels. If the amount of calcium consumed is not enough, or if the body does not absorb enough calcium from the diet, bone production and bone tissue will daa. In this case, the bones become weaker, which makes them brittle and break easily.
Usually, bone loss occurs over a long period of many years. Often, people go to the doctor because of a bone fracture and then find out that they have osteoporosis. Usually, by then, the disease has reached its advanced stages and the damage to the bones has become serious.
The main cause of this is the lack of certain hormones, especially estrogen in women and androgen in men. This disease is common in women, especially in those over 60 years old. Menopause is associated with a decrease in estrogen levels and increases the risk of osteoporosis in women. Other factors that contribute to bone loss in this age group include inadequate calcium and vitamin D intak and other age – related changes in endocrine function .
Your doctor will ask you various questions about your lifestyle and other complications you may have. The doctor will also ask if there is a family history of osteoporosis or if you have broken a bone before. Blood tests are often used to measure calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, sex hormones, and thyroid and kidney function.
Bone density test
Based on the examination, the doctor may suggest a test called a bone mineral density test. It can be used to measure bone density in different parts of the body. A bone mineral density test can detect osteoporosis before a fracture occurs and predict future fractures. It is also possible to know the effect of the treatment and determine the rate of bone loss by repeating this test at intervals of one year or more.
Regular exercise is necessary to prevent this problem. Between the ages of 19 and 64 should do at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise, such as cycling or brisk walking, every week.
Weight bearing and endurance exercises are very important to improve bone density and help prevent and treat this problem .
People between the ages of 9 and 64 should also devote two or more days per week to exercises. These exercises work all major muscle groups, including legs, hips, back, chest, shoulders, and arms.
If you’ve been diagnosed with osteoporosis, talk to a doctor before starting a new exercise program to make sure it’s right for you.
Even if you have osteoporosis, you can still benefit from a healthy diet. Remember:
• In addition to dairy products, you can get the calcium you need from green vegetables, broccoli and beans, as well as from supplements and foods that have calcium added, such as some types of breakfast cereals and orange juice.
• Vitamin D helps absorb calcium. Therefore, if you do not get enough vitamin D from foods or sunlight, you should use supplements. To absorb enough vitamin D from sunlight, your body should be exposed to direct sunlight for at least 15 minutes a day.