Raynaud syndrome

Raynaud syndrome is one of the problems of the circulatory system. In fact, this syndrome is a condition in which the body’s reaction to cold or emotional states is too much. This reaction also leads to abnormal spasms in the blood vessels in the hands and feet, which are called arterioles.

The symptoms of Raynaud disease often appear suddenly in a person. And that is why this syndrome is included in the group of diseases related to the nervous system.

This disorder mainly affects the fingers, but it can also affect the ears, nose, nipples, knees, or toes. Vaso – spasm reduces blood circulation and leads to discomfort and discoloration of the skin.

It is episodic, meaning it comes and goes. A typical period lasts about 15 minutes after the end of exposure to cold or stressors. Its symptoms include mild discomfort such as numbness or ” tingling ” feeling. Affected areas usually turn white or blue when exposed to cold or emotional stress. And they turn red when reheated or de – stressed.

Types of Raynaud syndrome

There are two types of Raynaud syndrome: primary and secondary

Primary type: According to a reliable study in 2020, among people who had symptoms of Raynaud’s disease, it was observed that 80 to 90% of them had the primary type of this disease. This type of disease has no specific cause and is called idiopathic.
Secondary type: The presence of an underlying disease or certain treatments causes secondary Raynaud syndrome. For example, systemic sclerosis can cause Raynaud’s syndrome and is often the first symptom of this disease.

Symptoms of Raynaud syndrome

This problem occurs in episodes or attacks of the disease. It affects certain areas of the body, among which the fingers and toes are more common.

The affected area is pale or white due to a lack of blood flow.
The affected area turns bluish blue with a feeling of coldness and numbness. This is due to the loss of oxygen in the tissue.
When the person warms up and the circulation starts again, the person feels discomfort, redness, and swelling.
In severe cases, it may lead to skin ulcers or gangrene and numbness of the fingers.

At first, a person may experience symptoms in only one finger or toe. But later it can occur in the other mentioned areas. And each attack may last from a few minutes to a few hours.

It usually affects the fingers. In the first type of disease, there is no symptom in the thumb. But if the thumb is affected, the person is suffering from the secondary type of the disease.

The secondary type of the disease may also move to other parts of the body, including the following:

the face
the knees
Two courses of this disease are not exactly the same even in the same person.

Causes of Raynaud disease

Doctors do not fully understand the cause of primary Raynaud disease. The body reacts to cold weather or emotional stress by restricting blood flow to the skin. Although this is a natural way for the body to control its temperature, Raynaud syndrome causes a delay in this reaction by not returning the blood flow to a normal state, and as a result, the person experiences the symptoms of this disease.

However, the cause of this disease is still unknown and other effective factors also play a role in its occurrence, such as:

Genetics: According to a study, in 50% of people with Raynaud’s, a blood member of the family has the disease.
Blood circulation disorder: If a person has a vascular spasm he is prone to Raynaud’s syndrome.
Incorrect communication of the nervous system: The body’s nervous system is responsible for controlling the automatic regulation of body temperature, but it may not function correctly in stressful conditions and temperature changes and lead to a delay in vaso – constriction.
Blood concentration: Our blood consists of different cells that affect its concentration and consistency. Any abnormality or blood disorder may predispose a person to primary Raynaud syndrome.


There is no definitive treatment for primary and secondary Raynaud’s. However, various treatment strategies and lifestyle changes can help control symptoms and reduce the number of attacks you experience.

Treatment solutions for the symptoms of both types of diseases are the same.

changing life – style
Lifestyle changes are a big part of Raynaud’s treatment process. The first treatment strategy is to avoid foods that cause blood vessels to constrict, such as products containing caffeine and nicotine.

Keeping warm and exercising are also helpful in preventing or reducing the intensity of some attacks. In addition, exercise is very useful for improving blood circulation and managing stress.

you have vaso – spasm, keeping warm is essential. To cope with an attack you can:

Cover your hands with gloves or your feet with socks.
Put your hands or feet under lukewarm (not hot) water.
Massage your hands and feet.

By roya

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