Vision sensing is a sensory system of the five senses. That is able to perceive and interpret the environment using visible light reflected from objects. The various physiological components involved in vision sense are collectively known as the visual apparatus.
The vision Sense is one of the main and most important five senses in humans. In general, humans obtain and analyze 80% of their environmental information through sight and sense of sight. Although the hearing is also important. Eyes and eyesight play the most important role in the daily activities of human beings. They play an important role in matters such as studying, learning, watching movies, driving, and love. So the universe is based on perception and seeing, and the world without eyes would be completely meaningless. So we have to take care of our eyes carefully.
Have you ever wondered how we see? To see and benefit from the vision Sense we need several devices and subsets that, in cooperation with each other. They can make the objects and the world around us visible and benefit us from having a beautiful sense of sight. Therefore, we will talk about the sense of sight and how visual information reaches the brain and processes it.
Eyes and Vision Sense
In fact, the eye is one of the most complex and amazing parts of the human body. So the human eye is made up of three layers: the sclera, the choroid, and the retina. The retina is the innermost important layer in the structure of the eye. This part is a sensitive area to light and plays important role in the sense of sight due to its conical and cylindrical cells. The retina and its various parts are located behind the eye. Of course, it plays a very important role in clarifying images.
The Main Parts of the Retina
The retina is made up of three main and very important parts. Firstly a macula is a part of the retina in the optic axis of the eyeball. This section has many cone receptors and plays a very important role in accuracy and sharpness. Many underlying eye diseases damage this area and can cause irreversible damage to the eyes and vision.
The retinal pigment layer is rich in pigments and is essential for accuracy and vision correction by absorbing additional light.
The layer of cylindrical and conical cells is one of the main and very important layers in the retina. They are different from each other in terms of structure and physiological function. These cells are responsible for the production of visual sensory signals after light enters and passes through the primary layers of the eye.
The blind spot is the end of the retina from where the optic nerve leaves the retina and transmits visual signals to the brain. After passing through the cornea, light reaches the pupil lens. And after passing through the vitreous, it reaches the retinal layer.
After passing through the eye, light reaches the retina through the lens system of the eyes, and after passing through the outer layers of the retina, it reaches the cylindrical and conical cells in the retina. The light – sensitive chemicals in these cells have the ability to decompose into chemical compounds. And by producing molecules and chemical compounds, they are able to launch messenger cascades and depolarize conical and cylindrical cells.
Transmission of the Vision Sense to the Optic Nerve
Visual sensory messages produced in a cone and cylindrical cells slowly reach horizontal cells, bipolar cells, and amacrine cells in the retinal layers and eventually enter the optic nerve.
What is the optic nerve?
It is a sensory nerve that extends from the end of the retina to deliver primary visual messages to the brain. Signals or messages from the visual sense leave the retina through the optic nerve and travel to the opposite side of the brain after reaching the visual chiasm.
Primary visual cortex
It is anatomically located in the calcarine groove and is the site of the delivery of direct visual signals from the sources. So this part of the visual cortex receives visual signals raw and directly from the macular region of the retina.
Secondary visual cortex
It is located on the sides (four sides) of the primary visual cortex and is able to analyze visual sensory messages of visual concepts. This area of the brain receives and analyzes visual signals from the primary visual cortex. The visual cortex in the brain has many different and specialized cells. Each of them has the ability to analyze specific information from visual messages and work in two general ways. The primary pathway by the cells of the visual cortex is the rapid visual pathway, and to determine the three – dimensional position of objects. The general shape of the beautiful landscape and the motion or stillness of objects is determined. And the secondary visual pathway in the cerebral cortex is the accurate color recognition path. It works to decompose colors, determine their details and exact location.
Principles of eye care and vision Sense
Did you know that studying in bright light can also cause harm? It is a study in bright light that has been talked about enough everywhere. Various mechanisms can be proposed to form this damage, one of which is to increase the brightness of the screen. The screen needs to be brighter in order to be seen well in bright environments. We do this manually or many of our devices (such as mobile phones and tablets) make this change automatically. It is certainly not useful or logical to make the light source in front of our eyes very stronger. Reflection of light is not a good thing either. In recent years, anti – glare coatings have become very widespread and samples can be seen everywhere.
Covers that are placed on the screens and cause the reflection of light in them to be limited. Also, many of us, when buying and installing screens for our mobile screens (sold as glass or the like), assume that transparency and durability are the only important things to consider, and possibly those in business. There are mobile phones and laptops, they can provide us with much better explanations and information in this field. Regular appointments with your ophthalmologist are essential to prevent macular damage and other vision problems. Weight loss will cause fatigue and constant tiredness. Diabetes can push the eyes to the point of complete blindness. According to scientists, people with type 2 diabetes are 72 percent more likely to develop cataracts, and non – diabetics are twice as likely to develop glaucoma.
Vision Sense and working with a computer
The best way to take care of your eyes when working with a computer is to stop working for 30 minutes to an hour and look away and blink regularly. This activates the nerve currents in the eye and prevents myopia.
Computer chairs have a great impact on the health of your eyes, so buying a suitable chair is worth the time. Take your room light seriously too. Place your monitor where the direct light of the window or the lamp above your head does not reflect. As you know, the pupil of the eye opens and closes in proportion to the light that shines on it,
Do not push the eye to adapt to the environment. So never look at your mobile or tablet screen in a dark environment. The center of the monitor should be about 10 to 20 cm below your eyes. This condition also causes the eyelids to be lower and the eye area to be exposed to less air. It also reduces neck and shoulder fatigue. In these cases, you should place the monitor at the right height. And the height of the chair relative to the desk should be adjusted so that your forearm is parallel to the ground when working with the keyboard.
Avoid staring at the monitor as much as possible
Look for ways to just listen to the sound instead of staring at the monitor and other ways. If you are going to watch a movie, if you have an LED TV or other types that are more modern, look for ways That you can watch the movie you want on TV. Ophthalmologists believe that for every 40 minutes of looking closely, you should look away for a few minutes or close your eyes for a few minutes. This means that after using the computer for a while, look away for a few minutes. So that your eye muscle relaxes. Therefore you will not get tired and dry eyes, which is a common complication of using the computer.
What about eye injuries in skiing?
The amount of light radiation, and reflection in mountainous and snowy areas, is many times the amount of radiation that is reflected in non – snowy conditions. Therefore, by looking directly at the snow, especially in sunny weather, a lot of ultraviolet rays enter the eye. It can be harmful to the eye. So that the radiation from the reflection of snow can cause corneal ulcers, which is a phenomenon. We know it as snow blindness.
How do the problems caused by snow blindness manifest themselves?
Superficial keratitis, or corneal ulcer, is often bilateral and painful and the person is unable to open the eyes. The eyes turn red and there are many tears. In some people, there is a possibility of dry eyes and the feeling of sand in them, reduced vision and blurred images, painful eye movements.
What is your advice for people who have frequent contact with the reflection of snow light, such as skiers or drivers who drive on the road?
Drivers in snowy areas should wear sunglasses and UV goggles. Also, the car windows should be closed so that these people do not suffer from dry eyes due to wind and cold. For others, especially skiers and climbers, the use of light and dark-colored goggles is recommended.